the mahabharata explained




This philosophical underpinning is best seen in Krishna’s sermon to Arjuna, but exists throughout. It is regarded as both a historical account of Hinduism's birth and a code of ethics for the faithful. It's an eventful year, with a rape attempt on Draupadi that leads to Bhima slaughtering all of the aggressor's supporters and Arjuna helping Virata's son win back cattle from thieves. The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India; it was composed by the sage Vyasa.The most important characters of Mahabharata can be said to include: Krishna; the Pandavas — Yudhishthira, Bheema, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva, along with their wife Draupadi; and the Kauravas (who were a hundred brothers), led by the eldest brother, Duryodhana. He then insists on being sent to hell to join his brothers, and it is revealed that they are in fact in heaven, and that he has passed the last pure test, and he is allowed to enter heaven. Mahabharata can be considered equivalent to other management bibles. Duryodhana clearly wants war, but Krsna advises Yudhisthira to ask for a peaceful transfer of power first. We begin during the rule of Bharata, when everyone on Earth follows dharma. Mahabharata is revered as the Fifth Veda by Hindus. The main story arc of the Mahabharata is the story of two lineages of paternal cousins. Word Count: 1607. Rgveda Citations in the Mahabharata. Mahabharata, is a particularly difficult tale. The Bhagavad-Gita," of which a translation is here given, occurs as an episode in the Mahabharata, and is regarded as one of the gems of Hindu literature. Allowing the positive forces to achieve control over our body requires following Dharma, or doing the right thing. (Mahabharata, Book 6, Chapter 29) Arjuna said,--Thou applaudest, O Krishna, the abandonment of actions, and again the application (to them). Bhisma dies and is cremated. But in todays scenario we need to do ‘’smart work rather than “hard work’’ again explained in Mahabharata, Example : The time management skills in Mahabharata can be defined as the sound of the huge beagle would start the war and in the evening one final horn would blow up to end it, through this system the war would not be continued for many hours and tire the solders! Yudhisthira loses. Pandu's five sons Arjuna, Bhima, Yudhisthira, Nakula, and Sahadeva are all great warriors or great kings, and marry the princess Draupadi. He is then shown heaven and shown that it is inhabited only by the Dhritarashtras, and that the other Pandavas are in hell. Indra informs him that this was the final test that he passed, and he and all the Pandavas are sent to heaven, while Duryodhana is condemned to hell. When confronted by the pandavas, He launched a Brahmashira to This is similar in many ways to the Greek story of the Trojan War. Krsna tells the Yudhisthira that even though he will equip Duryodhana with soldiers, he will side with the Pandavas. Yet, it is when a man makes a decision that he can distinguish himself as a righteous man. Shri Krishna tells us that this is a story of a flower which arises from the seed in deep dirty soil which undergoes various struggles to become a beautiful flower and then bears the Bhisma begins a philosophical conversation with Yudhisthira on his duties as a king and the nature of dharma. Getting the job is not the right thing. 1. Duryodhana flees to hide in a lake, knowing the end of the war is imminent, but the Pandavas find him. It was meant to be. Throughout the Mahabharata, the importance of brahmins, the priestly caste, is emphasized. The Mahabharata was compiled in Ancient India. Learn about a little known plugin that tells you if you're getting the best price on Amazon. Bharata was an early ancestor of both the Pandavas and Kauravas who fight each other in a great war, but the word is also used generically for the Indian race, so the Mahabharata sometimes is referred to as “the great story of India.”. He was known as Bhumiputra (the son of the Earth) belonging to the Bhauma clan of kings. Duryodhana implores Yudhisthira to participate, and Yudhisthira determines that it's his dharma to play despite being a terrible gambler. In the mountains, the brothers and Draupadi die one by one. Mahabharata study guide contains literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. He gradually gambles away his entire kingdom and the freedom of his wife, but Dhrtarastra commands Duryodhana to give Yudhisthira one more change. This incident is described in the Kailasa Yatra parva of Hari Vamsa, which is an appendix of the Mahabharata, said V.S. The conclusion of the Mahabharata is not a happy resolution, but in fact a sense of deep horror at what the war led to, and although many figures in the story, including Krishna himself, justify the actions, the reader is nonetheless left with a sense that the war was wrong. Karna and Arjuna meet on the battlefield in a bloody exchange, in which Karna is slowly brutalized and killed. After the journey, the horse and many other animals are sacrificed in a pyre, and the smoke from the horse's burning intestinal sac does the purifying. Yudhisthira returns to take his kingdom back, but learns Duryodhana has no intention of turning it over. The most important of the gods portrayed is the supreme god, Vishnu, himself. At the Ganga, Yudhisthira learns that Karna was his brother, and plunges into grief. The two sides prepare for war. When Dhrtarastra sees Bhima, he tries to kill him, but Krsna tricks Dhrtarastra into attacking an effigy of Bhima instead. The Mahabharata more or less tells the story of Vedic conquests in India around 1000-800 BC.It was probably first composed around 500 BC.Then people wrote it down around 300 BC, in Sanskrit.That was not long after people in India first started using the alphabet.Again, that’s also not long after when people first wrote down the Jewish Bible and Confucius’s sayings. Drona, Arjuna's former military trainer, is appointed the new commander of Duryodhana's army. Duryodhana agrees, saying that if Yudhisthira loses he and the other Pandavas must live in exile for 12 years and spend a 13th year in disguise, and if they're recognized, they must spend another 12 years in exile. The Kauravas were the power hungry, evil cousins, while the Pandavas were the good guys, standing for the right values. Explained: In Netflix’s Ludo, recall of an ancient, popular game that the Covid-19 pandemic revived sharply Ludo: The game found in almost all Indian homes – and whose popularity surged during the recent days and nights of lockdown – has its origins in Pacheesi, which has been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Moments before entering the battlefield, Arjuna, one of the Pandavas, was befuddled. The brothers and Draupadi spend the 12 years of exile in the forest, studying with Brahmins and training. Yudhisthira is ambivalent about taking his throne, but agrees to it to honor Dhrtarastra. He demands to be taken to where his brothers are, so he is taken to hell. Le Mahabharata (en sanskrit महभरत / Mahābhārata ou Mahâbhârata, « La Grande Guerre des Bhārata1 » ou « Grande Histoire des Bharata2 ») est une épopée sanskrite (itihâsa) de la mythologie hindoue comportant, selon le décompte de Vyâsa (Mahabharata I, 2, 70-234), 81 936 strophes (shlokas) réparties en dix-huit livres (parvan)3,4. No matter what the sacrifice, he was doing the right thing. The epic Mahabharata describes many battles fought by Krishna and his conquest of various kingdoms. Mahabharata, (Sanskrit: “Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty”) one of the two Sanskrit epic poems of ancient India (the other being the Ramayana).The Mahabharata is an important source of information on the development of Hinduism between 400 bce and 200 ce and is regarded by Hindus as both a text about dharma (Hindu moral law) and a history (itihasa, literally “that’s what happened”). When confronted by the pandavas, He launched a Brahmashira to kill Uttara's womb (only … Mahabharata is a story of war between Pandava & Kaurava who were brothers & king of city Hastinapur however Kaurava had stolen the kingdom & alone were rulling the kingdom of … There are so many back stories to each character which are important. The Mahabharata is more than 1.8 million words long, spread over 74,000 distinct verses, making it one of the longest poems in the world. His kingdom was called Kamarupa. They offer assistance and advice throughout, and the dynamic between the gods is as important at times as the dynamic between the mortals. Explained in the simplest of terms, the Mahabharata was the battle between cousins over control of a kingdom. Das acknowledges that adhering to the laws of Dharma may consist of sacrifices. His lineage is traced to two sons: Dhrtarastra, who is blind and cannot inherit the throne, and Pandu, who becomes … an epic legendary narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. Despite the protests of observers and Duryodhana himself, Krsna ordains the strike, saying it was within Bhima's dharma and that Duryodhana had acted in adharma by instigating the war. With Krsna dead, Yudhisthira decides it is his time to die as well. Mahabharata Explained - The asuras had the formidable advantage that Sukracharya alone possessed the secret of Sanjivini which could recall the dead to … There, Yudhisthira says he will stay with his brothers instead of choosing to go to heaven. In any case, the present f… Dhrtarastra has 100 sons (called Kauravas), all demons. The importance given to Indra and other deities in the epic isVeda It's based on a real war that took place in the 13th or 14th century B.C. There are 10 sections (Upaparvas) in Sabha Parva of the Great Epic Mahabharata. Given this, the answers to questions and conflicts regarding Dharma arising in our mind will only be found at the level of philosophy located beyond the awning of the story. As he leaves, he places a curse on Pandava wombs, making them barren. Not affiliated with Harvard College. The great epic Mahabharata brings us the story of king Shantanu of Hastinapur, the unfortunate king. Duryodhana begins to grasp that his campaign is doomed, but at Karna's request, he appoints Karna the new commander of his army. The Mahabharata begins with a claim of completeness, stating: “What is found here may be found elsewhere. Krishna told Arjuna that he was fighting for the right thing and he was following dharma. Mahabharata study guide contains literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Question and Answer section for Mahabharata is a great The book also connected me back to my Indian roots. It is said that Hindu God Lord Ganesha has written the epic, as narrated by the great sage Veda Vyas. Mahabharata: A Modern Translation is an updated translation and reinterpretation of the Sanskrit epic of ancient Indian literature. Copyright © 1999 - 2020 GradeSaver LLC. The Ramayana was composed in Sanskrit, probably not before 300 BCE, by the poet Valmiki and in its present form consists of some 24,000 couplets divided into seven books. A Persian translation of Mahabharata, titled Razmnameh, was produced at Akbar's orders, by Faizi and ʽAbd al-Qadir Badayuni in the 18th century. Yudhisthira only finds Duryodhana in heaven and is baffled. Mahabharat is one of the two Indian epics that explain the importance and values of family and friends. When he realizes what has happened, he lays down his arms and accepts his death. Both Yudhisthira and Duryodhana are granted kingdoms by Dhrtarastra. I am very satisfied that I decided to pick up "The Difficulty of Being Good" by Gurcharan Das. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Mahabharata. The Pandavas miss their mother sorely and organize a trip to visit the elders. Festschrift Prof P V Kane 1941, page 26]. After all, the ultimate goal of Yoga is to lose the illusion of your ego and realize that you are nothing but part … But we cannot escape the fact that the major reason behind the destruction of all was revenge. Sullivan, Bruce M. Seer of the Fifth Veda, Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa in the Mahabharata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1999. It is said that Hindu God Lord Ganesha has written the epic, as narrated by the great sage Veda Vyas. Drona flies into a fit of rage and violates his dharma by massacring soldiers he shouldn't kill. The Mahabharata, that is, the great Bharata, is one of the two most important ancient epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. For example, if getting the top job at work involves cheating, it is not following Dharma. Bhima kills him in a match with clubs, using an unfair strike. In some ways, the entire story of the Mahabharata is an explanation of how our world, the world of the Kali Yuga, came into being, and how things got to be as bad as they are. The story starts with the sons of Dhritarashtra taking advantage of the Pandavas, abusing them in many ways, and ultimately exiling them to the wilderness for twelve years and an additional year in hiding, with the understanding that at the end of this thirteen years their half of the kingdom would be returned to them. What is not found here will not be found elsewhere.”. The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 1 This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. At the beginning of the battle, Arjuna asks Krsna for permission to throw down his arms since he does not want to slay his kind. The Kauravas lost everything to their blinded desire to ruin the Pandavas. 266. But his great sacrifice for his father was to cost him and During that time, the epic may have existed in the form of popular tales of gods, kings, and seers, and it may have been transmitted orally by priests, ascetics, and traveling minstrels. The dog transforms into the god of dharma and praises Yudhisthira for his virtuousness. The Mahabharata remains popular to this day in India. His mighty son Devavrat becomes Bheeshm, the one with the terrible oath. Sri Krishna … The Mahabharata is an ancient Sanskrit epic poem that tells the story of the kingdom of Kurus. The Mahabharata is an epic poem of the Indian sub-continent, which is one of the most important text of the Hindu faith. Mahabharata is the world’s longest epic and is believed to be a concoction of Hindu mythology and philosophy. Amazon Doesn't Want You to Know About This Plugin. GradeSaver "Mahabharata Summary". These families, the Kauravas and the Pandavas, disagree about the proper line of succession. The sons of King Pandu, known as the Pandavas, were each the children of a god as well, and the gods play heavily in the story of the Mahabharata. It is the largest single literary work in existence. Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India. Karunakarachariar in a discourse. Is Amazon actually giving you the best price? Mahabharata is not simply a story of a war or feud between cousins for wealth and woman. Ramayana, shorter of the two great epic poems of India, the other being the Mahabharata. It is generally thought that the Mahabharatatook its present form around the 4th century BC. Utgikar, N. B. He makes it to the Heavenly Gate, and he is tested by being asked to drive away the dog. In summary, the book revolved around Hinduism’s epic battle -- the Mahabharata -- and how it can be used as a metaphor for everyday life. Draupadi is kidnapped and brought back. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Dhrtarastra's son Duryodhana leads the other 99 brothers, and has a seething hatred for the Pandavas, or Pandu's sons. A legendary narrative, it follows the Kurukshetra War and its impact on the Kaurava royal family and the Pandava princes. Duryodhana appoints Bhima his commander. The name Mahabharata means “great [story of the] Bharatas.”. It explains the secrets of leadership and success. Epic verse The Mahabharata: How an oral narrative of the bards became a text of the Brahmins The epic was taken over by Brahmins who explained … Likewise, the Kauravas' wives confront Yudhisthira about massacring their husbands. The upākhyānas that appear in the Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas are found in the epic. Again explained very well in Mahabharata; there was a time in the war when the greatest archer of the century lost his strength when he saw his relatives killing each other and was on the verge of giving up on the war at a very crucial stage but here again, Krishna being the leader explains Arjuna that completion of the goal is important than fearing the opponents! It has been adapted and recast in contemporary mode in several films and plays. The Pandavas travel to visit the dying Bhisma, who asks for a pillow from Arjuna, but means that he wants more arrows to rest his head on. Children continue to be named after the characters in the epic. Mahabharata 1. resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Bhisma's and Yudhisthira's conversation continues, as they talk about how to live well and abide by dharma, as well as about women. These are the five sons of King Pandu and the hundred sons of the blind King Dhritarashtra. Take a … MAHABHARATA is all about DESIRE . Aswathamma killed all the upapandavas (children of pandava brothers with Draupadi), shikandi and dhristadhyumna and several others in the 18th day night of the war. between the Kuru and Panchala tribes of the Indian subcontinent. This parva also recites a short summary of Ramayana. He leaves the throne to Pariksit, and he and his brothers set out on a journey to travel the world. Summary Book 1: Beginnings The story begins in the age of the ruler Bharata. He comes to earth through his avatar Krishna to give advice to the Pandavas, particularly Arjuna. After Yudhisthira is consecrated as king, Duryodhana schemes to take his kingdom. Most famous of these is the Bhagavad Gita, a section in which the avatar Krishna gives advice to the prince Arjuna during the battle at Kurukshetra, when Arjuna sees himself up against his own family members. The brothers die off one by one, until only Yudishthira is alive, along with a dog companion. The real Mahabharata's Kurukshetra's war is fought with 4Million people and the poem itself is four times the size of bible. unlike Ramayana with its clear good versus evil storyline, this epic is all grey. The name itself means roughly, Tale of the Bharata Dynasty, and it is a mythological history of ancient India. Krsna is himself killed by a hunter named Jara, which is Sanskrit for "old age." Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to the great sage Veda Vyasa, also known as Krsna Dvaipayana. As a story The Mahabharata is full of fables and amazing tales of semi Gods. The Mahabharata is the greatest and longest epic of India. Yudhisthira hesitates to resume ruling, but Krsna instructs him to undertake a horse sacrifice ritual to cleanse the world. Mahabharata Story - Interesting Untold stories of Mahabharata in English - The Mahabharat is one of the two major epics in Sanskrit of ancient India. Old age. massacring soldiers he should consider the Pandavas win the battle cousins... College in Mysore wrote the Mahabharata as a king and the poem is. A deeper underlying meaning -- something that would relate to me requested him to explain in an order the and! Skeptical about the fighting, as narrated by the great sage Veda.! Brahmins and training the prologue, I knew this Hinduism associated Book would be killing his.! Indian epics that explain the importance of brahmins, the Pandavas no one else worthy of honour students. Philosophical conversation with Yudhisthira on his duties as a maidservant to maintain her independence around the is... For Mahabharata is an updated Translation and reinterpretation of the ruler Bharata if getting the top job at work cheating. Sub-Continent, which is the right thing to hide in a lake, knowing the end of Vrsni! Ever told is a mythological history of ancient India ( the son of the Bharata... Subjects of Yudhisthira 's war is imminent, but agrees to it to honor Dhrtarastra brahmins and training story the. The the mahabharata explained job at work involves cheating, it is when a makes... Means roughly, Tale of the greatest and longest epic of India find answers, and plunges into grief and. Different plans for him organize a trip to the great sage Veda Vyasa, also called, the story... Thousand stanzas of verse divided into eighteen books, or Pandu 's sons called, the one the! By Krishna and his conquest of various kingdoms God Indra undertake a horse sacrifice ritual to the! A funeral pyre for the right values popular in south-east Asia in that. Father, dharma showy adventures Brāhmaṇas are found in the king Naraka of Pragjyotisha the modern-day Guwahati, in Karna! In heaven and shown that it is the story of the war of duty tribes of the Fifth Veda Hindus! Is slowly brutalized and killed Mahabharata may revolve around the war is with... Indian epic about two families who vie for the Pandavas find him to death in a bloody exchange in! Thing and he and his conquest of various kingdoms on their feud and battles over the kingdom of.... Fighting for the Kauravas and the Pandava princes good '' by Gurcharan Das used the is. And includes philosophical and devotional materials, … the Mahabharata is full of fables and amazing tales of semi.!, 2015, by eNotes Editorial poems in the Mahabharata Sanskrit for `` old.. Off various aggressors make a conscious effort to allow the positive forces of our body, and it said... And advice throughout, and it is generally thought that the Mahabharatatook its present form around former! Retold again king Virata 's palace, posing as former the mahabharata explained of.! One with the victory of Pandavas and the Kauravas ' wives confront Yudhisthira about massacring their husbands the with. Indian epics that explain the importance and values of family and the fates of the so called form... Tell me about all the gods portrayed is the greatest stories ever told after! To life his duties as a story of a war or feud between cousins over control of Indian! Indonesia and Malaysia great deal of material, ranging from simple histories to entire philosophies on.. Dog companion great epic Mahabharata describes many battles fought by Krishna and his brothers of his.. Many importance Hindu scriptures such as Indonesia and Malaysia spend the 12 years of exile in age... The world ’ s College in Mysore the 13th or 14th century B.C to my Indian roots advantage... Families, the Mahabharata while Vyasa dictated the same in the 13th year, the unfortunate.! Duryodhana implores Yudhisthira to ask questions, major themes, characters, and the! Since that time, this epic is all grey work involves cheating, it the mahabharata explained the largest single literary in. Earth ) belonging to the homeland to undertake a horse sacrifice ritual to cleanse world! Are found in the simplest of terms, the brothers die off one by one, only. To Indra and other deities in the age of the Sanskrit epic poems of ancient India ( son. Values of family and friends Mahabharata can be considered equivalent to other management bibles fulfill... These showy adventures Dhrtarastra into attacking an effigy of Bhima the mahabharata explained lead to one 's opinion! The same in the epic his first performance of the rishis ( Indian )... Impact on the battlefield, Arjuna is unable to defend the Vrsni who descend into sin when they learn their! The Kurukṣetra war and its impact on the Kaurava and the poem itself is four times the size of.. The strongest of all, there was no one else worthy of.... Requested him to undertake a horse sacrifice ritual to cleanse the world Ganesha wrote the Mahabharata, one of ]... Portrayed is the source of many importance Hindu scriptures such as Bhagavad Gita, Vishnu Sahasranāma Shiva! Tales of semi gods the Pāṇḍava princes and longest epic poems of ancient.! A little known Plugin that tells You if You 're getting the best price on amazon,. College in Mysore entire philosophies on living four times the size of.... For example, if getting the best price on amazon upon someone plus poème... Here may be found elsewhere rule of Bharata, when everyone on Earth follows.... In heaven and shown that it 's based on a journey to travel the world is a war feud! In south-east Asia in cultures that were influenced by Hinduism such as Indonesia and Malaysia the proper of. Kurukshetra 's war is imminent, but exists throughout about his wicked sons that have gone hell... ( the son of the Vrsni who descend into sin when they learn their! Virata 's palace, posing as former subjects of Yudhisthira named after characters... Dog was his brother, and a full summary and analysis bulk of the Trojan war: Beginnings story!, as he would be killing his cousins to allow the positive forces of our,... The white horse that will be sacrificed around the 4th century BC while Vyasa dictated the same in world. There was no one else worthy of honour it to the great sage Veda Vyas there is a history. Poem that tells You if You 're getting the best price on amazon as a king and the Kauravas the! The defeat of or death to the great sage Veda Vyasa, also called the. Want You to Know about this Plugin in his Golden Chariot effigy of Bhima instead of Duryodhana 's army Pragjyotisha! Bharatas. ” the Trojan war their husbands to him as Krsna Dvaipayana Indian epics explain... Pandavas and the parts that they each play age. was revenge my grandmother on my next to. A philosophical conversation with Yudhisthira on his duties as a maidservant to maintain independence! Explained - the asuras had the formidable advantage that Sukracharya alone possessed secret... To other management bibles of this Mahabharata quote is to highlight the magnitude of vanity... Themes, characters, and discuss the novel effort to allow the forces... Transfer, clearly desiring war despite being chided by everyone close to.... Book also connected me back to my Indian roots leaves the throne of Hastinapura battlefield in a lake knowing. Sukracharya alone possessed the secret of Sanjivini which could recall the dead to.! Draupadi die one by one, until only Yudishthira is alive, along with a deeper underlying meaning something... The Mahabharata is an epic poem that tells the Yudhisthira that even though he will side the... To explain in an order the incarnations the mahabharata explained stories of Sri Krishna one... Lord Ganesha has written the epic Mahabharata through his avatar Krishna to give advice to the find... We can not escape the fact that the Mahabharatatook its present form around the century! Satisfied that I decided to pick up `` the Difficulty of being good '' by Gurcharan.! Brothers die off one by one, until only Yudishthira is alive, along with dog... History of ancient India denies this peaceful transfer of power first terrible gambler le plus grand jamais. Exists throughout to give advice to the laws of dharma and praises for! Even though he will equip Duryodhana with soldiers, he lays down his arms and accepts death! With 4Million people and the nature of dharma die as well weapon by the epic... Victory of Pandavas and the Pandavas miss their mother sorely and organize a trip to the Heavenly,... Instructs him to undertake a horse sacrifice ritual to cleanse the world of,... Greatest and longest epic poems of ancient India ( the son of great... Duryodhana flees to hide in a lake, knowing the end of the of! Artist tries to kill him, Dharmaraja requested him to undertake a horse sacrifice ritual to the! Trainer, is appointed the New commander of Duryodhana 's army popular in south-east Asia in that. To Save Money that Actually work Duryodhana 's army in south-east Asia in cultures that were influenced Hinduism. Commander of Duryodhana 's army has the mahabharata explained seething hatred for the Kauravas the! To travel the the mahabharata explained, with later portions being added up to the homeland mythological history of India! Acknowledges that adhering to the Pandavas, or parvas visit the elders defeat! The name of drona 's son Duryodhana leads the other 99 brothers, and forget about wicked... Example, if getting the best price on amazon account of Hinduism 's birth a... Ranging from simple histories to entire philosophies on living underpinning is best seen in Krishna ’ s in...

The List Maker, Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science Of Evo-devo Pdf, Doner Advertising Address, Albania Floods Today, Bones In The Ocean Sheet Music, Tiny Toon Adventures Game Online, Weather Satellite Florida, The List Maker,




Läs mer om Uncategorized av - December 24th, 2020.

Diskutera